STEP Analysis: Technology Related Factors and Impacts of the Aliens Quit Compliance Order

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When the Busia  government  was  inaugurated,  it  immediately  issued  the  expulsion  order  which  caused  the  deportation  of  many  immigrants  in  a  manner  never before attempted.  The study demonstrates  how  the  interplay of factors, such  as  the  government ’s  desire  to  reduce the  rate  of  unemployment and  remittances  from  Ghana,  combat  crime,  guarantee  the  security  of  the  country, compel immigrants to comply with the immigration law s of Ghana, control the growth of  the  country’s  population,  ensure cultural   homogeneity ,   clear   the   streets  of  immigrant destitutes and beggars,   continue   the   policies   of   the   NLC,   and  xenophobia on the part of some Ghanaians, at least to some extent, influenced the  government’s decision to issue the expulsion order. [1]

The people most affected by this Expulsion Order were the Nigerians.  The numbers of Nigerians and in particular, Yoruba’s ethnic group members had drastically increased in the preceding years due to successes chalked by earlier Yoruba merchants who’ve been trading in pre-colonial Gold Coast.

The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a critical high-level information on socio-cultural this misguided immigration management policy and how to hopefully remedy the seeds of distrust that it sowed amongst fellow Africans.

Causative factors and events

Cocoa:  The introduction of cocoa in the late nineteenth century resulted in unprecedented migration of farmers around Ghana (Hill, 1963). Such migrations led to socio-economic change. According to Addo (1968) migrants influenced socio-economic change by making their skills and Technological expertise available where they were most needed, by bringing new sense of values and new modes of economic behaviour into established enterprises, by introducing new skills into the economic life of the receiving areas, and sometimes by opening up the possibility of profitable investment in the areas where they lived.

He suggested in the case of farmers in Wassa-Amenfi district that, they commanded control over property especially of large farms of cash crops and other foodstuff in the area. Other migrants from the Brong-Ahafo, Ashanti, Volta, as well as Gas, Akwapims and Fantis in the Sefwi area either owned farm lands bought from the Sefwi chiefs and head of families or worked as share croppers (Adu, 2005).

An example of early tension between Nigerians and local communities:

It  should  be  observed  however  that  agitation  for  deportation  of  “aliens”  or  “strangers”,  as  the  foreign  migrants  were  referred  to  by  Ghanaian  natives,  started  around  the  mid-20th   century.  In  1932,  during  the  cocoa  hold-up crisis, the Nigerian cocoa farmers in Akyem Abuakwa opposed the local cocoa hold-up led by the  king  of  the  town  against  the  European  firms 10 .  This  instigated  a  far-reaching  resolution  of  the  town  at  a  meeting  of  Okyeman  in 1935.  Then,  the  traditional  council  urge d  the  colonial  government  to  ensure  that  “troublemakers” (referring to the migrants) were kept out of Akyem Abuakwa. The resolution reads as follows:

Okyeman consider that  it  is  now  time  that  people  from  Nigeria  and  other  places should be made amenable to the customary law s of the various states  in  which  they  reside  and  that  any  act  of  insubordination  on  the  part  of  any  such  strangers  should,  with  the  sanction  of  Government,  be  punished  by    As  a  follow-up  to  the  above  resolution,  local  business  people  in  the  town  formed  the  National  Crusade  for  the  Protection of Ghanaian Enterprise which opposed the  foreign entrepreneurs.


Labor force in mining sector:  Sutton (1983) corroborates Peil’s assertion and  argues that, with very little from the north of Ghana and virtually none from the  south, much of the labour force in Ghana’s mines in the early twentieth century were  from neighbouring West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria (See  also Beals and Menezes, 1970; Harvey and Brand, 1974).

Resource flight:  In the Ghanaian case, the expulsion ‘had a mild ameliorative effect on the temper of Ghanaians’ and a debatable economic advantage for Ghana (Brydon, 1985). Indeed, Brydon interprets the expulsions in Ghana in adverse terms since, ‘aliens took with them capital, technology and in addition, a large part of the Ghanaian trading nexus was destroyed’ (Brydon, 1985:564). Following the Order in 1969, the economic policies pursued in the 1970s by the National Redemption Council and the Supreme Military Council (1972-1978) and the frequent changes in government as well as the non-continuity of policies (see Addo, 1981), created an economic downturn in Ghana. According to Dzorgbo (1998:207) the country’s inflation, unemployment and underemployment figures increased; and the national currency devalued. There was a general lack of confidence in the Ghanaian economy.


Educated Nigerians exempted:  The process of expulsion appeared to have lent  credence  to  Busia’s explanation  because  Nigerians  who  were  employed  in  the  Ghanaian  civil  service  and  those  teaching  in  the various Teacher Training  Colleges  were exempted  from deportation, except that those  who had no requisite  papers were asked to regularize them.













About Anang Tawiah

About the author :: Anang Tawiah is a New York City based Management Consultant specializing in Investment Risk and Technology Strategy. He continues to guide many Blue chip companies and Governments as a Business and Technology Consultant. Please direct all follow up questions, concerns, request for speaking engagements and presentations regarding my articles and research to my Facebook Page listed below. You can read more of his analysis or reach him for further professional consultations and or guidance at: // Email: // Follow me on Wordpress: // Follow me on Facebook:

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